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从古人的名字号看两位高崇文的“三不同”(转)

热度 9已有 1629 次阅读2016-7-14 16:37 |个人分类:博客| 从零开始, 而且, 汝州, 网上, 姓名

从古人的名字号看两位高崇文的“三不同”

学习宗族文化笔记之十

高致贤

        前言:自古稀之年以来,我参与了一些研究族谱之类的宗族文化活动,学到一些相关知识,懵里懵懂地写了一些有关帖子。开始还以为自己学懂了,多是盲从。进入耄年才感到老来出家的艰辛与自己知识之浅薄,故决定从网上搜索和谱书中寻找教材,从零开始学习宗文化,并将学习笔记这个丑媳妇公诸于公婆面前,敬请老师们批改与赐教,谢谢我采用教材的所有作者老师!

        本节提示:这一节是带着问题学的笔记。什么问题?唐朝有“墓碣铭”和“神道碑”均刻录高崇文的身世及其家人姓名。可是,两碑上的高崇文,除了名字相同外,父亲、儿子的名字都不同;妻子的姓也不同:

        “墓碣铭”上的高崇文的父亲是高郢,高崇文貞元十三年丁丑娶蔡氏,有賢行。十六年庚辰(800年)正月初四日寅時生子名承簡,十九年甲申(804)八月初二日辰時生子名承業;

        “神道碑”上的高崇文的父亲是高行晖;其夫人董姓,汝州长史同珍之女;嗣子士政、次子士荣、季子士明。

        鉴于墓碣铭和神道碑上的高崇文的父亲名不同,妻子姓不同,儿子名不同,我认为两碑铭上的高崇文不是一个人。可是,有人说是一个人,而且硬说墓碣铭上那个高崇文的父亲不是高郢是高行晖。对此,我看了以高崇文为始祖的皈仙派沿袭几百年的皈仙谱,记载高崇文的父亲都是高郢。于是,我提出神道碑上那个高崇文与墓碣铭上的高崇文不是一个人。理由是:两人的父亲、妻子、儿子的名字都不同,妻子的姓也不同。所以,不能说墓碣铭上那个高崇文的父亲是高行晖。

        于是,有人避开其父、其妻,只说其子名字不同的理由:“至于《南平郡王高崇文神道碑》记载崇文三子名不是常见的承简、承明、承恭,并不奇怪。古人有两三个名是常态崇文有三子和其他材料不矛盾。”

        我对这“古人有两三个名是常态”的理由为什么只适用于高崇文的三个儿子,为什么不适用于高崇文的父亲和高崇文的妻子?两三个名难道连姓都改吗?如高崇文的妻子姓蔡又姓董?这是不是为我所用的实用主义“理由”?无法理解。为此,我学习了古代人名的相关知识——

        “名”是每个人的代号。据《周礼》“婚生三月而加名”,婴儿出生三个月后由父亲取名。

        “字”只是限于古代有身份的人。《礼记·曲礼》上说:“男子二十冠而字”,“女子十五笄而字”,就是说不管男女,只有到了成年才取字,取字的目的是为了让人尊重他,供他人称呼。一般人尤其是同辈和属下只许称尊长的字而不能直呼其名。

        “号”也叫别称、别字、别号。名、字是由尊长代取,而号则不同,号初为自取,称自号;后来,才有别人送上的称号,称尊号、雅号等。 

        上述可知:古人有名、字、号。“古人有两三个名是常态”的提法不确切,作为研究来讲,将名、字、号统称为“名”是不科学的。而且名、字是由尊长代取,而号为自取,称自号。常识告诉我们:谱名及碑刻之名,必须用名或字,没有单独用号的。那么,墓碣铭和神道碑上的高崇文的父亲、儿子的名字完全不同,甚至于妻子的姓也不同。有如此写碑铭文的吗?叙述碑主其它史迹的文字可能会写错,可是他的父亲、妻子、儿子的姓名是不会写错的。用“古人有两三个名是常态”的理由来解释父亲、妻子、儿子的名字都不同的高崇文是一个人,实在是是没有说服力的!

2016.6.20发于深圳


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